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While the jurisdiction of Guernsey has complete autonomy over internal affairs and certain external matters, the topic of complete independence from the British Crown has been discussed widely and frequently, with ideas ranging from Guernsey obtaining independence as a Dominion to the bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey uniting and forming an independent Federal State within the Commonwealth, whereby both islands retain their independence with regards to domestic affairs but internationally, the islands would be regarded as one state.
Although it is not a member of the European Union , it had a special relationship with it until Brexit. It was treated as part of the European Community with access to the single market for the purposes of the free trade in goods.
Guernsey has ten parishes , which act as civil administration districts with limited powers. Each parish is administered by a Douzaine, usually made up of twelve members, known as Douzeniers.
Douzeniers are elected for a four-year mandate, two Douzeniers being elected by parishioners at a parish meeting in November each year. The longer serving Constable is known as the Senior Constable and his or her colleague as the Junior Constable.
Guernsey's Church of England parishes fall under the See of Canterbury , having split from the Bishopric of Winchester in Guernsey does not have a Central Bank and it issues its own sterling coinage and banknotes.
UK coinage and English, Scottish and Northern Irish-faced banknotes also circulate freely and interchangeably. In March there were over 32, people employed in Guernsey with 4, being self-employed and 2, employing businesses.
Public services, such as water, wastewater, the two main harbours and the airport are still owned and controlled by the States of Guernsey.
The electricity, and postal services have been commercialised by the States and are now operated by companies wholly owned by the States of Guernsey.
Gas is supplied by an independent private company. Newtel was the first alternative telecommunications company on the island and was acquired by Wave Telecom in  and subsequently rebranded as Jersey Telecom.
Both the Guernsey Post postal boxes since and the telephone boxes since are painted blue, but otherwise are identical to their British counterparts, the red pillar box and red telephone box.
In the telephone boxes at the bus station were painted yellow just like they used to be when Guernsey Telecoms was state-owned.
There is a single paved airport, Guernsey Airport. The States of Guernsey wholly own their own airline, Aurigny. The decision to purchase the airline was made to protect important air links to and from the island and the sale was completed on 15 May The Guernsey Railway , effectively an electric tramway , began working on 20 February and was abandoned on 9 June It replaced an earlier transport system which was worked by steam, the Guernsey Steam Tramway, which had operated from 6 June with six locomotives.
Alderney is now the only Channel Island with a working railway. A narrow gauge railway was built by the German forces during WW2 to transport materials used in the construction of coastal defenses.
This was removed after the War. Prior to the growth of the finance industry, the island's main industries were quarrying and horticulture.
The latter particularly decline as a result of the oil price shocks of the s and the introduction of cheap North Sea gas that benefited Dutch growers.
Guernsey has been a tourist destination since at least the Victorian days, with the first tourist guide published in This was halted with the sinking of the SS Stella in Guernsey enters Britain in Bloom with St Martin Parish winning the small town category twice in and ,  Saint Peter Port winning the large coastal category in and St Peter's winning the small coastal prize in The military history of the island has left a number of fortifications, including Castle Cornet , Fort Grey.
Guernsey loophole towers and a large collection of German fortifications with a number of museums. The use of the roadstead in front of St Peter Port by over cruise ships a year is bringing over , day-trip passengers to the island each year.
Guernsey, Alderney and Sark each raise their own taxation,  although in Alderney but not Sark transferred its fiscal rights to Guernsey.
Personal tax liability differs according to whether an individual is resident in the island or not. Unlike in the UK, the income tax year in Guernsey aligns to the calendar year.
Only one cap applies per married couple. Since , Guernsey has operated three levels of corporation tax , depending on the source of the income.
Social Security contributions, a form of taxation, are payable by most residents, employees paying 6. The population is 63, July est. The population growth rate is 0.
The life expectancy is The whole jurisdiction of Guernsey is part of the Common Travel Area. For immigration and nationality purposes it is UK law, and not Guernsey law, which applies technically the Immigration Act ,  extended to Guernsey by Order in Council.
Guernsey may not apply different immigration controls from the UK. Guernsey undertakes a population management mechanism using restrictions over who may work in the island through control of which properties people may live in.
The housing market is split between local market properties and a set number of open market properties. Consequently, open market properties are much more expensive both to buy and to rent.
Housing licences are for fixed periods, often only valid for 4 years and only as long as the individual remains employed by a specified Guernsey employer.
The licence will specify the type of accommodation and be specific to the address the person lives in,  and is often subject to a police record check.
These restrictions apply equally regardless of whether the property is owned or rented, and only apply to occupation of the property.
Thus a person whose housing licence expires may continue to own a Guernsey property, but will no longer be able to live in it.
There are no restrictions on who may own a property. There are a number of routes to qualifying as a "local" for housing purposes.
Generally, it is sufficient to be born to at least one Guernsey parent and to live in the island for ten years in a twenty-year period.
In a similar way a partner married or otherwise of a local can acquire local status. Multiple problems arise following early separation of couples, especially if they have young children or if a local partner dies, in these situations personal circumstances and compassion can add weight to requests for local status.
Once "local" status has been achieved it remains in place for life. Even a lengthy period of residence outside Guernsey does not invalidate "local" housing status.
Although Guernsey's inhabitants are full British citizens ,  an endorsement restricting the right of establishment in other European Union states is placed in the passport of British citizens connected solely with the Channel Islands and Isle of Man.
If classified with "Islander Status", the British passport will be endorsed as follows: 'The holder is not entitled to benefit from EU provisions relating to employment or establishment'.
Those who have a parent or grandparent born in the United Kingdom itself England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland , or who have lived in the United Kingdom for 5 years, are not subject to this restriction.
Teaching in Guernsey is based on the English National Curriculum. There are 10 primary schools, plus two junior schools and three infant schools.
As of [update] , the island still has the plus exam and pupils then transfer to one of four 11—16 secondary schools, or a co-educational grammar school.
In , the States of Guernsey voted to end the use of the plus exams from onwards. The Education Department is part way through a programme of re-building its secondary schools.
The Department has completed the building of Le Rondin special needs school, the Sixth Form Centre at the Grammar School and the first phase of the new College of Further Education — a performing arts centre.
The construction of St Sampsons High was completed summer and admitted its first pupils in September In , the school leaving age was raised so the earliest date is the last Friday in June in the year a pupil turns 16, in line with England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
This means pupils will be between 15 and 10 months and 16 and 10 months before being able to leave. Prior to this, pupils could leave school at the end of the term in which they turned 14, if they so wished: a letter was required to be sent to the Education department to confirm this.
However, this option was undertaken by relatively few pupils, the majority choosing to complete their GCSEs and then either begin employment or continue their education.
They also have the option to study vocational subjects at the island's Guernsey College of Further Education. There are no universities in the island.
Students who attend university in the United Kingdom receive state support towards both maintenance and tuition fees. In , the Education Department received the approval of the States Assembly to introduce student contributions to the costs of higher education, in the form of student loans, as apply in the UK.
In , the Education Department reported to the States Assembly that it had no need to re-examine the basis of higher education funding at the present time.
The French impressionist painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir visited the island in late summer While on the island, he painted fifteen pictures of the views on the island, all featuring the bay and beach of Moulin Huet on the south coast.
The Guernsey cattle is an internationally famous icon of the island. As well as being prized for its rich creamy milk, which is claimed to hold health benefits over milk from other breeds,  Guernsey cattle are increasingly being raised for their distinctively flavoured and rich yellowy-fatted beef, with butter made from the milk of Guernsey cows also has a distinctive yellow colour.
Guernsey also hosts a breed of goat known as the Golden Guernsey , distinguished by its golden-coloured coat. At the end of the Second World War , the Golden Guernsey had almost been rendered extinct due to interbreeding on the island.
The survival of this breed is largely credited to the work of a single woman, Miriam Milbourne, who successfully hid her herd from the Germans during the occupation.
In turn, Guernseymen traditionally refer to Jerseymen as crapauds " toads ". The so-called Guernsey Lily , Nerine sarniensis , is also used as a symbol of the island, although this species was introduced to the island from South Africa.
A local delicacy is the ormer Haliotis tuberculata , a variety of abalone harvested under strict laws from beaches at low spring tides. Until the early 20th-century French was the only official language of the Bailiwick, and all deeds for the sale and purchase of real estate in Guernsey were written in French until Family and place names reflect this linguistic heritage.
The loss of the island's language and the Anglicisation of its culture, which began in the 19th century and proceeded inexorably for a century, accelerated sharply when the majority of the island's school children were evacuated to the UK for five years during the German occupation of — In , he published a novel set on Guernsey, Travailleurs de la Mer Toilers of the Sea , which he dedicated to the island.
Guernsey was his home for fifteen years. Guernseyman G. Edwards wrote a critically acclaimed novel, The Book of Ebenezer Le Page that was published in , including insights into Guernsey life during the 20th century.
Henry Watson Fowler moved to Guernsey in Written in , it is about a writer who begins corresponding with residents of the island, and becomes compelled to visit the island.
Guernsey participates in the biennial Island Games , which it hosted in and at Footes Lane. Its first medals came in with its first gold in In those sporting events where Guernsey does not have international representation, but the British Home Nations are competing separately, highly skilled islanders may choose to compete for any of the Home Nations.
There are, however, restrictions on subsequent transfers to represent other Home Nations. The football player Matt Le Tissier , for example, could have played for the Scottish or Welsh football teams, but opted to play for England instead.
Football in Guernsey is run by the Guernsey Football Association. The second tier is the Jackson League.
In the —12 season, Guernsey F. Guernsey became division champions comfortably on 24 March ,  they won the Combined Counties Premier Challenge Cup on 4 May Recently, the island upgraded to a larger, better-quality stadium, in Footes Lane.
Guernsey has the second oldest tennis club in the world, at Kings  founded in  , with courts built in Guernsey was declared an affiliate member by the International Cricket Council ICC in and an associate member in Various forms of motorsport take place on the island, including races on the sands on Vazon beach as well as a quarter-mile "sprint" along the Vazon coast road.
Le Val des Terres, a steeply winding road rising south from St Peter Port to Fort George, is often the focus of both local and international hill-climb races.
The racecourse on L'Ancresse Common was re-established in after a gap of 13 years, with the first new race occurring on 2 May Sea angling around Guernsey and the other islands in the Bailiwick from shore or boat is a popular pastime for both locals and visitors with the Bailiwick boasting multiple UK records.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the eponymous island, the administrative unit, and the jurisdiction of Guernsey.
For the whole Bailiwick, see Bailiwick of Guernsey. For other uses, see Guernsey disambiguation. Island in the English Channel.
Half an hour later, Gurney touched him on the shoulder and beckoned him outside, where conversation was possible.
A protagonist is the main character of a story, or the lead. Origin of gurney First recorded in —40; of uncertain origin; perhaps after J.
Theodore Gurney, American inventor, who invented a two-wheeled horse-drawn cab in Words nearby gurney Gurkha , Gurkhali , Gurmukhi , gurn , gurnard , gurney , Gurneyite , gurrier , gurry , Gürsel , gursh.
Words related to gurney wagon , truck , rickshaw , bunk , buggy , dray , gig , dolly , barrow , pushcart , handcart , tumbrel , palanquin , wheelbarrow , litter , cot , bed , berth , trundle , curricle.
Norfolk Annals Charles Mackie. The Red Eric R. Longmire; Wing T. Lai Lisbon, Portugal. Auto Matters. And I remembered having spent a lot of time with these little tabs on the back, or spoilers and so forth, and I thought to myself — well, I wonder if one would work on a wing?
We already had wings on these in Sure enough, that was the beginning of the Gurney flap. Motor Sport Magazine. Once Gurney had confirmed they were alone, Unser told him the rear was now so well planted that the car was pushing understeering badly, hence the poor lap times.
Winners Are Driven. New York: Wiley. Dan told me to relax. Leave them in the open. Don't bring attention to them. Aerodynamics for Engineering Students.
Boston: Butterworth Heinemann. So successful was this deception that some of his competitors attached the tabs projecting downwards to better protect the hands.
AIAA Paper : 96— Liebeck conducted wind tunnel tests on the effect of a 1. He used a Newman-type airfoil, which had an elliptic nose and a straight line wedge for the rear section.
AIAA Paper. The first theoretical investigations were published by Liebeck who introduced the concept of trailing edge devices to aircraft aerodynamics.
Iutam Symposium Transsonicum IV. Henning Rosemann and Kai Richter. Berlin: Springer. Gurney flaps are known already since , when they were first patented by Zaparka USA.
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